Saturday, January 25, 2020

Getting the Boss GT-1 effects processor to work in Linux

I recently picked up a Boss GT-1 guitar digital effects floorboard to use directly, and also to play with connecting it up to the Raspberry Pi.

A month later, I have everything working well. As is often the case with niche gear and Linux, though, it was a bumpy road to get there. I'm going to document the process here, in case it is helpful for anyone with a similar issue.

I booted up my Pi, connected the GT-1 via USB, ran lsusb to list the available USB devices, and there it was. Great - that was easy!

Next, I tried playing a .wav file with aplay. No go. No audio at all. Not so great.

Time to start scouring the internet. After a while, I came across this thread on

It had a fix for another Boss device. It also turned out to work for Boss Katana Amplifiers, which have a software setup that is very similar to my GT-1 device.

I grabbed the kernel source code, applied the fix (with a tweak for my device), and soon I had working audio! Well, kind of working. I was getting pops and crackles every second or so - enough to make things unusable.

To understand this fix, and why it wasn't quite working requires a bit of explanation on how USB audio works. There are a number of methods that devices use to synchronize audio timing. The one used by the Boss GT-1 (and many similar devices) is called "implicit feedback". In simple terms, what this does is, on devices that have both a capture and playback that are controlled by the same clock, the capture source is used to determine the output data rate. Essentially, the host is in a USB feedback loop - outputting the same number of samples it receives - generally after doing some processing.

The fix that got my interface working basically disables the implicit feedback mechanism. This got audio moving through the system, but because there was no timing feedback it was slightly off - resulting in the pops and crackles I was experiencing.

A while later, I came across this post in the Line 6 forums about getting the Helix (another guitar processing device) working in Linux:

The additional fix here was to hack the sample rate slightly to try to match the real timing of the device. I gave it a try, and it turned out that if I nudged the sample rate to 44105 (instead of 44100), my pops and crackles mostly went away - happening every few minutes instead of constantly.

This fix was obviously a hack, and not perfect, but it at least made my interface usable. The core problem still existed - the device should be operating using implicit feedback, but when this was enabled it didn't work at all.

I had posted about these issues on the alsa-devel mailing list, and a while later I got a helpful email suggesting that some Roland devices waited to send capture data until they had received some playback data. The kernel implicit feedback code, on the other hand, was waiting for some capture data before it send any playback data. The result was a standoff - with nothing getting sent either way.

Simply disabling the code that caused playback to wait on capture resulted in working audio with implicit feedback enabled, and a perfectly solid audio stream with no pops or crackles!

I outlined this fix on the alsa-devel mailing list here:

I hope to get a patch for this into the kernel eventually - right now I am doing some poking around to see if I can find out what other similar devices this fix might work for.


  1. I guess you are Mike? Thanks for this.
    Following the progress eagerly.
    The last time I worked on kernel modules was when I fixed the SBLive!
    module and supporting apps around 2007.

  2. Thanks a lot for this patch. It makes my Librazik distro much more useful !

  3. Hello!
    Thanks so much for the article! Apparently you have found a solution and I want to try it soon. But I don’t know where to start? How to connectBoss GT-1 to Linux? Thanks in advance!

    1. The fix is outlined in the link at the bottom of the post. It requires patching and recompiling your kernel.